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岩石标本保护方法
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密封容器保护法主要用于保护那些易挥发、蒸发和粉末状的岩矿标本,如自然汞、石油、天然卤水、各种粉末状矿砂等.容器主要为玻璃质制品、开口处用蜡、凡士林及其他物质密封.
真空容器保护法主要用于保护那些易潮解、溶解、水化、氧化而遭受破坏的岩矿标本,如钾石盐、石盐、钠硝石、天然碱、芒硝、黄铁矿等.容器为玻璃质制品,使用时用真空泵将其抽成真空.
渗透保护法主要用于保护那些松散、易掉粉末的岩矿标本,如高岭土、膨润土、硅藻土、矾类矿物、煤、辉钼矿、雄黄、雌黄等.常用的试剂有丙烯酸乳液 1号、2 号,聚醋酸乙烯酯乳液、甲基丙烯酸甲酯粗单体.具体方法是将标本较长时间地浸泡在用这些试剂制成的溶液中,从里到外对标本进行粘补、加固,然后取出烘干.
薄膜保护法主要用于保护那些致密块状、孔隙度小的岩矿标本,如各种硫化物,含硫盐、含氧盐、橄榄岩、金伯利岩等.常用试剂为甲基丙烯酸甲酯预聚物、丙烯酸清漆3号、丙烯酸清漆6号,还需在试剂中加入适量的抗氧剂及紫外线吸收剂.具体方法是将岩矿标本浸泡在已配制的试剂里,一定时间后取出烘干,或将试剂直接涂在标本上,使标本表面形成一层无色透明的薄膜,以此防止标本氧化、潮解,达到保护的目的.
包埋保护法主要用于保护那些在大气、紫外线等因素的作用下,颜色和光泽等易发生变化和失真、易损坏变质的岩矿标本,如黄铜矿、斑铜矿、辰砂、辉锑矿、雄黄、雌黄、孔雀石、蓝铜矿等.常用试剂为甲基丙烯酸甲酯预聚物和紫外线吸收剂.具体方法是将岩矿标本包埋于试剂中,经过抽真空、加温聚合,遂形成透明固体,以此达到保护标本的目的.在包埋时要放入文字说明,以备查寻、识别和陈列时使用.这种方法不仅可以长期保护岩矿标本,而且包埋之后具有色彩鲜艳、透明度好、外形美观、坚固耐用、携带方便等优点。In this paper, the physical and chemical methods are used to protect minerals, rocks and mineral samples. The common methods include sealed vessel protection, vacuum vessel protection, permeability protection, membrane protection, embedding protection, etc
 
The sealed container protection method is mainly used to protect the volatile, evaporated and powdered rock and mineral samples, such as natural mercury, oil, natural brine, various powdered ore, etc. the containers are mainly glass products, and the openings are sealed with wax, vaseline and other substances
 
The vacuum vessel protection method is mainly used to protect the rock and mineral samples that are easy to be deliquesced, dissolved, hydrated and oxidized, such as sylvite, halite, sodium nitrate, natural alkali, mirabilite, pyrite, etc. the vessel is a glass product, which is vacuumized by a vacuum pump during use
 
Osmotic protection is mainly used to protect loose and easily powdered rock and mineral samples, such as kaolin, bentonite, diatomite, alum minerals, coal, molybdenite, realgar, realgar, etc. commonly used reagents include acrylic emulsion 1, 2, polyvinyl acetate emulsion, and methyl methacrylate methyl monomer. In the liquid, the specimen is pasted and reinforced from inside to outside, and then taken out for drying
 
The film protection method is mainly used to protect those rock and mineral samples with dense block and small porosity, such as various sulfides, sulfur salts, oxysalts, peridotites, kimberlites, etc. the commonly used reagents are methyl methacrylate prepolymer, acrylic varnish No Take out and dry the prepared reagent after a certain period of time, or apply the reagent directly on the specimen to form a colorless and transparent film on the specimen surface, so as to prevent specimen from oxidation and deliquescence and achieve the purpose of protection
 
The embedding protection method is mainly used to protect those rock and mineral samples which are easy to change and distort in color and luster under the action of atmosphere, ultraviolet and other factors, such as chalcopyrite, bornite, cinnabar, stibnite, realgar, orpiment, malachite, chalcopyrite, etc. the common reagents are methyl methacrylate prepolymer and ultraviolet absorber. The specific method is to pack the rock and mineral samples Buried in reagent, after vacuumizing and heating polymerization, transparent solid is formed to protect specimen. When embedding, written description should be put in for searching, identifying and listing. This method can not only protect rock and mineral specimen for a long time, but also has the advantages of bright color, good transparency, beautiful appearance, firmness, durability and portability after embedding