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矿物标本收藏谨防放射性危害
文章来源:http://www.ccfeiyu.com/ 仁和智华地质标本

秒速时时彩近年,随着人们物质生活水平不断提高,文化生活亦发生了明显改观,收藏的热度和质量也在逐年提升。收藏品种类繁多,目前比较趋同的收藏品大致分为自然历史、艺术历史、人文历史和科普历史四大类,具体分为文物类、珠宝、名石和观赏石类、钱币类、邮票类、文献类、票券类、商标类、徽章类、标本类、陶瓷类、玉器类、绘画类。矿石、矿物收藏属收藏品之标本类,是一个既有科学性又有艺术性的收藏门类。对于矿石、矿物的收藏,不同收藏者目的性差异很大,有的人收藏作为爱好、陶冶情操,有的人为了学习、研究工作,有的人作为谋生的一种途径,有的人为了投资、成为美丽的硬通货等等。

秒速时时彩In recent years, with the continuous improvement of people's material living standards, cultural life has also undergone significant changes, and the heat and quality of collections are also increasing year by year。 There are many kinds of collections。 At present, the comparatively convergent collections can be divided into four categories: natural history, art history, humanistic history and popular science history。 They can be divided into cultural relics, jewelry, famous stones and ornamental stones, coins, stamps, documents, stamps, stamps, trademarks, badges, specimens, ceramics and jades。 Painting。 Ore and mineral collections are specimens of collections, which are both scientific and artistic。 For mineral and mineral collections, different collectors have different purposes。 Some collect as hobbies, cultivate sentiment, some for study and research, some as a way to earn a living, some for investment, become a beautiful hard currency and so on。

对于矿石、矿物标本的收藏,大家往往忽视了一个关键的细节,就是这些标本的放射性问题。一般而言,人类的生存环境就是一个充满辐射的环境,天然放射性元素是构成自然界的组成部分,在各类岩石、矿石、土壤、水体、大气、乃至人体中都有不同数量的放射性元素存在,这些天然存在的微量放射性辐射就是天然本底辐射,它已是自然平衡体系的一部分,不会危害人类健康,因为人类和其它生命在进化过程中,已经适应了本底辐射环境。但是,过量的辐射对人体是有害的,这是不言而喻。事实上,人们平时接触的绝大部分矿石、矿物标本是没有或者含有微量的放射性,只有极少数含铀、钍等放射性元素的矿石、矿物有强放射性,提醒大家在收藏这些矿石、矿物标本时,一定要提高防范意识,减少不必要伤害。

秒速时时彩For the collection of ore and mineral specimens, one of the key details is the radioactivity of these specimens. Generally speaking, the living environment of human beings is full of radiation. Natural radioactive elements are the components of nature. There are different amounts of radioactive elements in rocks, ores, soil, water, atmosphere and even human body. These natural trace radioactive elements are the natural origin. Bottom radiation, which is a part of the natural balance system, will not endanger human health, because human beings and other life have adapted to the background radiation environment in the process of evolution. However, it is self-evident that excessive radiation is harmful to human body. In fact, the vast majority of ore and mineral specimens that people usually come into contact with are not or contain trace radioactivity. Only a few ore and mineral containing radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium have strong radioactivity. It reminds us that when collecting these ore and mineral specimens, we must raise awareness of prevention and reduce unnecessary harm. 1.矿石标本收藏 1. Collection of ore specimens 与黑色岩系有关的矿产(如磷、钒、锰、重晶石等)矿石标本收藏时要特别小心,因为黑色岩系中赋存众多的亲铜、亲铁、分散、铂族、放射性及稀土等元素,同时,黑色岩系具有极强的吸附能力,往往含有离子吸附态的铀,有的可以达到工业品位;与伟晶岩有关的矿产(包含锂、铍、铖、钼、铷、铯、铪等多种稀有元素等)矿石标本收藏亦要注意,因为伟晶岩往往是稀有、稀土元素矿床的重要母岩,而且放射性元素(铀、钍)经常与稀土、稀有元素共同富集(照片1),常常形成独立放射性矿物(晶质铀矿、铀钍石等),有时可以形成放射性元素矿床。大家要特别注意,铀矿石是具有放射性危险的,还是少接触为妙。

Mineral samples related to black rock series (such as phosphorus, vanadium, manganese, barite, etc.) should be collected with special care, because black rock series contains many elements such as copper, ferrophile, dispersed, platinum group, radioactivity and rare earth. At the same time, black rock series has very strong adsorption capacity and often contains uranium as ionic adsorbed state. Some can reach industrial grade; mineral samples of pegmatite-related minerals (including lithium, beryllium, thorium, molybdenum, rubidium, cesium, hafnium and other rare elements) should also be noted, because pegmatite is often an important parent rock of rare and rare earth element deposits, and radioactive elements (uranium, thorium) are often associated with rare earth and rare earth elements. Element co-enrichment (photo 1) often forms independent radioactive minerals (crystalline uranium ore, uranium thorite, etc.) and sometimes radioactive element deposits. Particular attention should be paid to whether uranium ore is radioactive or less exposed. 2.矿物标本收藏 2. Collection of mineral specimens

绝大部分矿物晶体都没有放射性,只有极少数含铀、钍等放射性元素的矿物有放射性,多属放射性矿物看起来十分漂亮,它们往往有着艳丽的色彩,并在紫外光下发出明亮荧光,例如粒磷铅铀矿、碲铀矿、硅铅铀矿等,如果要评选世界上最美丽动人的矿物,那么铀矿物绝对名列前茅,它被誉为矿物家族中的“玫瑰花”。

Most mineral crystals are non-radioactive. Only a few minerals containing radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium are radioactive. Most of them are radioactive minerals which look very beautiful. They often have brilliant colors and emit bright fluorescence under ultraviolet light, such as granular lead-uranium ore, uranium tellurite, uranium silicate, etc. If necessary. In the selection of the most beautiful and moving minerals in the world, uranium minerals rank first in the list. It is known as the "rose" in the mineral family.

综合收集、分析前人资料,初步整理出具有较强放射性危害的矿物大致有三类23种:

By collecting and analyzing the data of predecessors, 23 kinds of minerals with strong radioactive hazards have been preliminarily sorted out.

一是9种铀矿物,包括晶质铀矿、沥青铀矿、铀黑、钛铀矿、硅钙铀矿、铜铀云母、钙铀云母、钒钙铀矿、钒钾铀矿(照片2)。这些矿物通常呈粉末状、土状集合体,黑色、灰黑色或深灰色,黄褐色,或者淡绿色或黄绿色,硬度一般在1―5之间,树脂光泽、珍珠光泽、玻璃光泽至半金属光泽,这些矿物一般因含铀较多,放射性是很强的。

One is nine uranium minerals, including crystalline uranium ore, pitchblende, uranium black, titanium-uranium ore, silica-perovskite-uranium ore, copper-uranium mica, perovskite-uranium mica, vanadium-calcium-uranium ore and vanadium-potassium-uranium ore (photo 2). These minerals are usually powdery, earthy aggregates, black, grey-black or dark grey, yellowish-brown, or light green or yellowish-green, with hardness ranging from 1-5, resin gloss, Pearl gloss, glass gloss to semi-metallic gloss. These minerals are generally highly radioactive due to their high uranium content.

二是6种稀土矿物,包括铌钇矿、磷钇矿、硅铍钇矿、褐钇铌矿、铌钙矿、复稀金矿。这些矿物硬度比各类铀矿物高,一般在4―7之间,颜色较深,有黑色、绿黑色、暗褐色、黄褐色、灰色、红色等,松脂、玻璃光泽至树脂光泽,玻璃或半金属光泽。这些矿物依其放射性元素含量的不同,放射性强弱不等。如铌钇矿,主要由铁、铀、钇族稀土元素等组成的铌钽矿物,含二氧化铀达23%,所以具有强放射性;硅铍钇矿含三氧化二钇一般为51。8%,常含其它稀土元素和钍等,具强放射性;铌钙矿含五氧化二铌达71%,具微弱放射性。

The second is six rare earth minerals, including yttrium niobium, yttrium phosphate, yttrium silicate, yttrium lignite, niobium calcite and diluted gold ore. The hardness of these minerals is higher than that of all kinds of uranium minerals, generally between 4 and 7. They are darker in color, such as black, green-black, dark-brown, yellowish-brown, grey and red, turpentine and glass gloss to resin gloss, glass or semi-metallic gloss. These minerals vary in radioactivity depending on their radioelement content. For example, niobium-yttrium ores, mainly composed of iron, uranium, yttrium rare earth elements and other elements, contain 23% uranium dioxide, so they have strong radioactivity; yttrium-silica ores generally contain 51.8% yttrium trioxide, often contain other rare earth elements and thorium, and have strong radioactivity; niobium-calcium ores contain 71% niobium pentoxide, with weak radioactivity.

三是以“石”相称的8种稀土矿物,包括易解石、独居石、烧绿石、凤凰石、钍石、褐帘石、方钍石、锆石。它们一般成分复杂,颜色有黑、灰、褐、棕红等暗色调的,

Thirdly, eight rare earth minerals, including calcite, monazite, pyrochlore, phoenix, thorite, epidote, thorite and zircon, are commensurate with "stone"。 They are usually complex in composition and have dark shades of black, grey, brown and brown-red。

也有白、黄、浅绿、粉红、橙黄等浅色调的,硬度变化较大,在4-8之间。这类矿物常含钍、锆、铈、镧、钍等稀土元素和铀,多具有放射性,是提取稀土和放射性元素的矿物原料。易解石是一种稀少的复杂氧化物矿物,除了含稀土元素、钍、铌、钛外,尚含铀、锡、锆、硅等杂质,具有强放射性;独居石常含钍、锆等,二氧化钍含量最多可达30%,常具放射性;烧绿石又称黄绿石,含五氧化二铌达到56%,同时常含钽、稀土元素、铀等,具有强放射性;锆石是提炼金属锆的主要原料,根据内部结构特点,分为高型、中型和低型锆石三种,前两种锆石基本不含或含有微量放射性物质,对人体是无害的,后一种透明度差、非晶质的锆石,因含有铪、钍、铀等混入物,具有较强放射性,对人体有一定程度的伤害。

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